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Simply put, ciphey is a password and secret manager that is like pass if it used age instead of PGP. More than anything, it is an experiment to determine how cryptography can be combined in a minimalist manner to protect passwords in a way that accounts for the most realistic threats to their confidentiality, reliability, usability, and resiliency. It takes many of the database and key management ideas from 1Password and Bitwarden and combines them with the Unix-like philosophy of pass.

To be clear, ciphey is still in development. The remaining work is outlined below. While I will be using it as my actual password manager, I strongly recommend that you only experiment with it and not rely on it for any actual passwords.

NOTE: This page is a work in progress.

The Basics

My goal is for ciphey to be simple enough that someone with a bit of knowledge about cryptography who wants to understand how their passwords are protected can do so after a short explanation. This sections aims to be that explanation.


Everything you store in ciphey goes into an entry. Generally, you'll have one entry per password. However, passwords come in many different forms: as a result, entries are plaintext, which means any file can be used as an entry.

This doesn't mean there is no structure to entries. For example, take a look at the entry for a hypothetical account below:

correct horse battery staple
tag: comics
username: Tr0ub4dor&3
To anyone who understands information theory and security and is in an
infuriating argument with someone who does not (possibly involving mixed case),
I sincerely apologize.

The first line of every entry is interpreted as the entry's "secret." In this case, the secret is correct horse battery staple, the password for the account. This is usually a password or private key, but can be any value that you might want to access by default. If this doesn't work for you for some reason, no worries; just leave the line blank.

The secret is followed by any number of optional field-value pairs. Every field-value pair lives on its own line and can contain any information you want, so long as it follows the format FIELD: VALUE. Fields can be repeated and in any order. The only limitation is that your FIELD cannot contain a : (: followed by a space), but the VALUE can.

There are no FIELDs with any special meaning (yet), but keeping them consistent will help you find entries more quickly. I strongly recommend giving each entry a name field, as this is what ciphey uses to search for entries by default.

Finally, the contents of the file from the first line that doesn't match the pattern FIELD: VALUE down to the end of the file is left uninterpreted, meaning that you can save any text that you'd like there. This is called the "note." In the example above, the "note" is the caption text from If needed, you can also separate your fields from your notes with a blank line.

The Entries

Your ciphey database is a folder of files that can live on any filesystem. This folder is completely encrypted, and thus can safely be backed up, shared, or otherwise accessed without any unauthorized party gaining access to the contents of the file.

└── entries/
    ├── age1sdnql3ksstj7krh7azddygh860f6uttus5t3e9j52t4k5z34kutqyzgr4e.age
    ├── age1ryutmsg486w4y06kq7w0rqm2s08r3sgzlwcl9p9p00jducedevvqkgrvyw.age
    ├── age1mqr5htmadgzlmcdjks79d6ucfe5k46ruavnaxm08m64lpl6h5udqhkwwvp.age
    └── age1r908d20yj3ntp9q8g0448kwflfgf3au2qmhkkx7zp8xnesfdjfhqpd3r2d.age
└── keys/
    ├── age1sdnql3ksstj7krh7azddygh860f6uttus5t3e9j52t4k5z34kutqyzgr4e.key
    ├── age1ryutmsg486w4y06kq7w0rqm2s08r3sgzlwcl9p9p00jducedevvqkgrvyw.key
    ├── age1mqr5htmadgzlmcdjks79d6ucfe5k46ruavnaxm08m64lpl6h5udqhkwwvp.key
    └── age1r908d20yj3ntp9q8g0448kwflfgf3au2qmhkkx7zp8xnesfdjfhqpd3r2d.key

Each file in the "entries" folder contains a single "entry." The name of each file is the age public key the entry is encrypted to. Every entry into your database is encrypted to a unique public key. Without that public key's corresponding private key, the contents of the entry cannot be accessed.

However, keep in mind that some metadata does leak. Namely, any data associated with the filesystem (date created, date last modified, owner/group, etc.) is NOT protected by ciphey by default. It's still a good idea to keep your database away from any curious eyes when it's avoidable.

Your Keys

Every time you unlock your ciphey database, you must have two things:

  1. Your Primary Passphrase (something you know)
  2. A Device Key (something you have)

Every "device" you have (i.e. your desktop, laptop, and phone) has its own Device Key. This key is generated and stored as a normal file when you first set up ciphey on the device, and never leaves it.

Each Device Key is encrypted with your Primary Passphrase. Without your Primary Passphrase, the Device Key cannot be used.

Alternatively, you can use a Device Key stored on a hardware token, such as a Yubikey or OnlyKey. This has the added benefit that the key material never leaves the hardware token, protecting against attacks that can steal key material from your computer's local disk. In order to decrypt your entries, an attacker would have to physically have access your hardware token, in addition to learning your Primary Passphrase.

Entry Keys

Every entry in your database is encrypted to a specific Entry Key. These entry keys are stored next to the database directory in the keys directory. Every entry gets its own key so that access can be cryptographically restricted on an entry-by-entry basis.

The keys stored on the filesystem are encrypted to every Device Key that you've given access to the entry.

Disaster Recovery

When you set up your ciphey database for the first time, you'll be prompted to create a Recovery Key, which is an age key encrypted with your Recovery Passphrase (By default, your Primary Passphrase, but this can optionally be changed). This key should be written down and stored in a safe place, such as in a safe. This way, if you lose all of your devices, you can still regain access to your passwords.

You can also give a copy of this key and your Recovery Passphrase to anybody else who should have access to your accounts in case of an emergency. This way, you can be sure that you're unlikely to ever lose access to your ciphey keys.


Every entry is encrypted with its own unique Entry Key.

Entry Keys are encrypted to each Device Key that is granted access to the entry. They can be encrypted to other people's Device Keys to share an entry with them.

Device Keys are encrypted with your Primary Passphrase. They can either live on your filesystem or on a hardware token, like a Yubikey.

When you first set up ciphey, you also create a Recovery Key, which every Entry Key is encrypted to by default. This Recovery Key is encrypted with your Recovery Passphrase, which are to be stored offline in a safe place and/or given to trusted individuals so they can be used in case of an emergency.



Entry Parsing

The entry format was designed to be easy to parse for both humans and programs. The following Rust snippet is a (simplified) example of parsing an Entry from a String s:

// The entry's secret
let mut secret: String;
// A vector of key/value pairs
let mut fields: (String, String) = Vec::new();
// The entry's notes
let mut notes: Option<String> = None;

// An iterator over the decrypted lines of the entry file
let mut lines = s.lines();

// The first line contains the secret
secret =;

while let Some(line) = lines.by_ref().next() {
	if let Some((key, value)) = line.split_once(": ") {
		// Add the key and value to fields
		fields.push((key, value));
	} else {
		// Take the rest of the lines and put them into notes
		notes = Some(

This particular implementation has a lot of room for improvement. The biggest issue adding complexity is that Rust's take_while iterator method is consuming, not peekable, meaning that ownership of the lines it checks is passed to its closure. Thus, the following snippet, which is much easier to read, would not work:

// An iterator over the decrypted lines of the entry file
let mut lines = s.lines();

// The first line contains the secret
secret =;

// Take lines while they can be parsed as key/value pairs split by ": "
fields = lines.take_while(line.split_once(": ")).map(...);
// first line failing take_while is incorrectly dropped here

// Join the remaining lines as notes
notes = lines.collect::<Vec<String>>().join("\n");

This is because even though the first line that fails the conditional is consumed by take_while, it would neither be added to the fields (as it cannot be parsed as one) nor collected into the vector over the lines of notes, instead being dropped, causing data loss.

There are a few Rust crates that provide a peekable take_while, but they're too big to justify as adding as dependencies for just this feature. It's possible that a simpler approach is possible using an iterative method, but I have not been able to come up with one yet.

Remaining Work

Password History

At the moment, there is no built-in support for keeping track of entry changes over time. pass uses git to keep track of changes at the filesystem level, while password managers like Bitwarden have built-in support for storing the history of passwords over time.

Currently, there is nothing stopping someone from manually checking entries into git or another backup solution. However, one way to provide better integration into ciphey would be to allow for pre-hooks and post-hooks. These hooks are scripts that are run before or after specific actions are taken by ciphey. This would allow, for example, automatically committing the changes to a git repository and pushing those changes to a remote server after every change made by ciphey.

File storage

For the moment, entries must be plaintext files. If you want to encrypt an arbitrary file with ciphey, you have to manually create an encryption key, store that key as an entry in ciphey, and then manually encrypt said file with the newly-created key.

It would be beneficial to devise a way to treat encrypted files just like any entry so that the key material for other files can be automatically managed in the same way.


While ciphey makes sure that you don't lose your secret key material through the use of Recovery Keys, ciphey does not have any built-in backup system for the encrypted ciphey database. Of course, you can still back up ciphey like any other directory (which is a benefit of it living as just a plain directory), but it may be useful to consider ways that ciphey can better integrate or accomodate backups.